Place-Name Glossary

This is a glossary of Scots words which are used in place-names. Each entry gives the meaning of the word, alongside linguistic notes (discussed below) and modern and historical examples of the word in actual place-names in Scotland.

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Modern FormOlder Scots FormEtymologyPoSDefinitionModern Examples Historical EvidenceSND LinkDOST LinkNotes
cleugh, cleuchcleuchOE *clōhna (narrow) gorge or ravine with steep rocky sides, usually the course of a stream; the steep side of a ravine, a cliff; a crag, a rockByrecleugh (Berwickshire); Hare Cleugh (East Lothian); Cleugh Hill (Wigtownshire); Buccleuch (Selkirkshire); The Cleuch (Midlothian); Point of the Cleugh (Wigtownshire)Edwardes-cloch c1190; Ernesclucht c1350; Westircluch-heuyd c1370; Corsclewch 1456cleugh, cleuch n; S2 cleugh ncleuch n
cauld, cowldcaldOE caldacoldCaldside (Berwickshire); Cauldcots (Angus); Caulhame (West Lothian); Cauldcoats (Midlothian, Renfrewshire); Cauldside (Dumfriesshire, East Lothian); Coldstream (Berwickshire); Cauldshiel (East Lothian)Kalde welle c1190; Kaldestrem c 1200; Caldelaue 1218; Caldclogh 1363cauld adj; S1 cauld adj; S2 cauld adj; cowld adj; S2 cowld adjcald, cauld a
fellfellON fjallna (rocky) hill, a mountain; a tract of hill-moorCampsie Fells (Stirlingshire); Long Fell (Kirkcudbrightshire); Fellcleugh (Berwickshire); Round Fell (Kirkcudbrightshire); Dodd Fell (Roxburghshire); Fell Hill (Wigtownshire); Dryden Fell (Roxburghshire); Abbey Fell (Kirkcudbrightshire); Fellend (Dumfriesshire); Fell of Fleet (Kirkcudbrightshire); Capell Fell (Dumfriesshire); Thorter Fell (Kirkcudbrightshire)Erniltoun fell 1654; Ellemsyde of Felcleuch 1665; Campsie Fells 1795; Fell of Fleet 1832fell n2 fell n1
carsekerse, carsuncertainnlow and fertile land along the bank of a riverCarse of Gowrie (Perthshire); The Carse (Inverness); Kinneil Kerse (West Lothian); Carse of Raddery (Ross and Cromarty); Carse Knowe (West Lothian); Kerse (Ayrshire); East Kerse Mains (West Lothian); Carsethorn (Kirkcudbright); Carseburn (Angus)Cars 1292; Ferycars 1359; Cars de Buthkener 1359; Kars 1390; Kers 1392; Kerse de Kambus 1451; Carse of Gowrie 1564; Kersheid 1641carse ncars, carse n; kars n; kers(e n1
cairtercarter, karterME cartarena carterCarterhaugh (Angus, Selkirkshire); Carter Bar (Roxburghshire); Carterhope Burn (Peeblesshire); Carter Fell (Roxburghshire)Carterford c1250; Cartergate c1250; Cartarehauch 1489-90; Carteryards 1657cairter ncartar(e, carter n1; karter, kairter, nSee also SND S1 cadger n
haughhauch, halchOE halhna piece of level alluvial ground on the banks of a river, river- meadow landCarterhaugh (Angus); Haughend (Perthshire); The Spittal Haugh (Aberdeenshire); Rosehaugh (Morayshire, Ross and Cromarty); Haugh of Ballechin (Perthshire); The Haugh (Inverness); Haughhead (South Lanarkshire)le Haulch 1373; le Quenys Hauche 1457; the halch of Tannadys 1494; Hervis Haucht 1546; Barhaugh 1596haugh n; S1 haugh n; S2 haugh nhauch n1; ADDS hauch n1; halch n
clint, klintclyntODan klintna cliff, a high crag, a precipice; a rock or large stone; a crevice in rocks; steep faces on a high hillClints of Drumore (Kirkcudbrightshire); Clintwood Castle (Roxburghshire); Oak Clints (Kirkcudbrightshire); Clints (Midlothian); Clints of the Buss (Kirkcudbrightshire); Clinthill (Dumfriesshire, Fife); Clints of the Spout (Kirkcudbrightshire); Sound Clint (Kirkcudbrightshire)Clinkskaillis 1556; Klintwood 1654; Clints March 1781; Clintwood 1832clint, klint n; S2 clint nclint, clynt n
bankbankON bakki, *banki, ME bankena bank, a river bank; a raised shelf or ridge of ground; steep cliffs or precipitous rocks (along the coast); a hill slope; a foot-path or walk; the place in a moss from which peats are cut; the boundary line of a farmClydebank (Dunbartonshire); Bankfoot (Perthshire); Scrogbank (Selkirkshire); Meadowbank (Edinburgh); Springbank (Wigtownshire); Bankend (Dumfriesshire); Greenbank (Aberdeenshire); Nessbank (Inverness)Byrkebanke 13thC; Brerybankes 1367; Bankhede 1519; Bankend 1546bank n2, S1 bank n2, bakk n1bank n1
puilpuleOE pōl, OE pyllna pool, a pond, a small expanse of standing water; a pool in a river; (in Shetland) a small marsh, a patch of swampy groundCockpool (Dumfriesshire); Boretree Pool (Kirkcudbrightshire); Piperpool (Fife); Alder Pool (Kirkcudbrightshire); Stirkpool (Dumfriesshire); Washing Pool (Kirkcudbrightshire)Hum Pulles 1198-1214; Blakepol c1190; le Pulle 1359; Sloypule 1456; the pwll of Monboy 1458; Foull Poull 1557-78puil n; S2 puil npule, puil(l n
connie, coney, kinnen, kunnoconing, cuningOF conin, conil, ME conyngna rabbitConey Park (Stirlingshire); Coneyhatch (Kincardineshire); Kinnen Hill (West Lothian); Cuninghowes (Edinburgh)The Cunyshill c.1540; Cunninghills 1688; Cuninboigs 1688; Kinningbrae 1698connie n; kinnen n; S1 kinnen n, kunno nconing, conyng n; cuning, cunning n; qwneing n; kinning n
corse, crosscorse, croce, crosOE cros, ON krossna cross; a market cross, a market place, a boundary cross; a cairn, a pile of stones on a hill-topCorseford (Renfrewshire); Corsehill (Kirkcudbrightshire); Corsewall (Wigtownshire); Coarse Hill (Fife); Tollcross (Edinburgh, Glasgow); Corseyard (Kirkcudbrightshire); Crossford (South Lanarkshire); Crossgates (Fife); Corsehope (Midlothian); Corseland (Kirkcudbrightshire)Crossrigeflat c1220; Crosflatte c1320; Hakkerstane crose 1425; Crosdikis 1456corse, cors, kors n; croce n; cross n; S1 cross n; S2 cross ncors, corce, corse n2; croce n1; cros, cross(e n1; croice, crois(e n; crose, croas n
miremyreON mýrr, ME mirena piece of swampy ground, a bog, a morass; a peat bogCraigmire (Aberdeenshire); Myreside (Angus, East Lothian, Moray); Black Myre (Aberdeenshire); Halymyres (Kincardinechaire); Hartwoodmyres (Selkirkshire); Whitemyres (Aberdeen); Greenmyre (Aberdeenshire); Myreton (Angus)Wytteriggemyre c1200; Falumireside 13thC; Seggymir 1302; Hwytemyr c1320; Red(e)myre 1348; ly Futyis myre 1463mire n1myr(e, mir(e n
neuknewk, nukeME nokena corner, a nook, a projecting corner of land; a small (triangular) piece of land; a projecting point of land, a headland or promontory; a street corner; a remote or outlying place; the angle of a stream, an inletCraigneuk (North Lanarkshire); East Neuk of Fife (Fife); Woodneuk (Renfrewshire); Millersneuk (Dunbartonshire); Bare Neuk (West Lothian); Dykeneuk Moss (Ayrshire); Millstone Neuk (East Lothian); Mossneuk (North Lanarkshire)the Nuke 1607; the catchpeull newik 1614; the walneuk of Paislaye 1620; the east nook of Fife 1676neuk n; S2 neuk nneuk, newk n; nuk(e, nuik, nok n
graingrainON greinnthe branch or fork of a stream or river, an arm of the sea; a branch of a valley, a tributary valley; the branch of a treeCrooked Grain (Aberdeenshire); Grains of Fetteresso (Kincardineshire); Black Grain (Selkirkshire); Grains of Tanar (Abderdeenshire); Haregrain (Roxburghshire); East Grain (Aberdeenshire); Grains (Dumfriesshire); The Grains (Abderdeenshire); Fernie Grain (Midlothian); Burngrains (Dumfriesshire); Wolf Grain (Aberdeenshire); Tod Grain (Dumfriesshire); Burn Grains (Kirkcudbrightshire)Blakgrane 1456; Fauhopgranys 1456; Blakgrane 1510; Graines 1635grain n2grain(e, grane n2
den, deanden, deneOE denuna hollow with sloping sides (often with a rivulet), a narrow (wooded) ravine or valley, a dingleDen Burn (Aberdeenshire); Blakedean (Roxburghshire); Cardenden (Fife); Dean Village (Edinburgh); Denholm (Roxburghshire); Lambden (Berwickshire); Aikendean (Midlothian); Milldeans (Fife); Hassendean (Roxburghshire)Lummesdene c1100; Botheldene 1159; Ellesdene 1218; Strikerden 1275; Denside 1304den n1den n1; dene n1
derndern, darnOE derneasecret, obscure, hidden; dark, dreary, lonely, desolateDerncleugh (Aberdeen); Darnick (Roxburghshire); Darnrig Moss (Stirlingshire); Dernfurd (Aberdeenshire)Dernewic c1136; Dernewick 1584; Dernfurd 1662; Derne Moss 1684dern adj; S2 dern adjdern(e, darn(e a
loanloneOE lanena grassy strip leading to a pasture or open ground, beginning at or near a farm, village or burgh as a green where the cattle were milked; a cattle-track through arable land which links to common grazing; the part of a farm ground which leads to or adjoins the house; a street or roadway, a laneDobbie’s Loan (Glasgow); The Tinks’ Loan (St Andrews); Langloan (North Lanarkshire); Byresloan (Fife); Loan Knowes (Wigtownshire); Blackloanhead (Banffshire); Loanhead (Angus, Fife, Midlothian); Fairloans (Roxburghshire); Loanfoot (Fife); Loanburn (Kirkcudbrightshire)the lone of Alanhauch 1535-36; Brochtoun lon heid 1587; Dalry lone 1591; Carcart lone heid 1664loan n1; S2 loan n1lone n1Compare SND loanin n and DOST loning n
doocotdowcotME dove + cotna dovecotDovecothall (Berwickshire, Renfrewshire); Doocot (Aberdeenshire); Doo' cot Park (Perth); Doo' cot Hill (Clackmananshire); Dovecot Wood (Aberdeen); Dovecotwell (Dumfriesshire)ducat burne 1592; doucott aiker 1593; dowcat wynde 1660; Dovecot Park 1781doocot n; S2 doocot ndowcot, dowcat n
hope (1)hopeOE hopna small upland valley or hollow (enclosed at the upper end by green hills or ridges); a sloping hollow between two hills; a hillDryhope (Selkirkshire); Fawhope (Roxburghshire); Harthope Burn (Dumfriesshire); Kershope (Roxburghshire); Soonhope (Berwickshire); Hopefield (Midlothian); Hyndhope (Selkirkshire); Wauchope (Dumfriesshire); Corsehope (Midlothian); Sweethope (Roxburghshire); Blackhope (Midlothain)Berhope c1190; Ruhope c1190; Elrehope c1200; Hollehope 1200-02hope n1; S1 hope n1hope, hoip n2
wawall, wawOE weall, wallna wall, a boundary wall; the defensive walls or ramparts (around a town or castle); (in plural) roofless buildings, ruinsDun’s Wa’s (Kirkcudbrightshire); Back o’ Wa’ (Wigtownshire); Waas (Fife); Jean's Wa's (Kirkcudbrightshire); Bratney Wa’s (Wigtownshire); Aitkin's Wa's (Kirkcudbrightshire)(The) Corsswallis 1552; the walneuk of Paislaye 1621; Schawiswallis 1622; Grahames Walls 1649; Badgels-wolls 1681; Guns Walls 1755wa n; S2 wa nwal(l, wa(w n
hine, havenhane, havinOE hæfenna haven, a (natural) harbourEast Hain (Fife); Buckhine (Fife); Longhaven (Aberdeenshire); Broad Haven (Caithness); Sandhaven (Aberdeenshire); North Haven (Aberdeenshire); West Haven (Aberdeenshire)le Bellehauen 1369; the hayne of Wigtoun 1517; the hewin of Sterling 1598-99; Bucky-hine a1779hine nhavin, hevin, heavin n1; ADDS hane, hayne;Compare SND hive n and hythe n, and DOST (, hyve n
craigcragGael creag, ME cragna cliff on the sea or mountain-side, a projecting spur of rock; (in plural) rocky ground; sea-rocks, cliffsEastcraigs (Edinburgh); Craigmire (Aberdeenshire); White Craig (Stirlingshire); Williamcraigs (West Lothian); Little Craigs (Ayrshire); Craigend (Angus); Westcraigs (West Lothian); Maw Craig (Aberdeenshire); Craighead (Ayrshire)Krag 1278; Villamis Craigis c.1335; White Cragg 1370; Westecrage of Egilsface 1392craig, crag n1; S1 craig n1; S2 craig n1crag, crage, craig n1
waterywattiryOE wæterigafull of water, well watered, wateryEaster Watery Knowe (Angus); Wester Watery Knowe (Angus); Wateryslack (Aberdeenshire); Waterybutts (Perthshire)Wattridike c1230; Watryraw 1405; Wetterybuttis 1567; Watrielawes 1664water n; S1 water n; S2 water nwattiry, wat(t)(e)ry adj
easterester, eisterOE ēasterraaeastern, lying towards the east, the more easterly of two places or buildings (in contrast with wester)Easterhouse (Glasgow); Easter Ross (Ross and Cromarty); Easterton (Aberdeenshire); Easter Quarff (Shetland); Easter Cash (Fife); Easter Tofts (South Lanarkshire); Easter Knock (Aberdeenshire)Esterhathou a1200; Estyr Fenton c1224; Eister Vemis 1556; Eistyr Drakie 1562easter adjester, eister, easter a
east, aistest, eistOE ēastasituated in the east, easternEastfield (Glasgow); East Craigs (Edinburgh); East Kilbride (South Lanarkshire); Eastgate (Inverness); East Neuk (Fife); East Grain (Aberdeenshire); East Voe of Quarff (Shetland)Estfulhope c1240; Estcrag 1278; Est Nesebit 1296; Estschelys 1359; Estwod 1373east adj; S2 east adj; aist adjest, eist a

Glossary compiled by Dr Alison Grant of Scottish Language Dictionaries and the Scottish Place-Name Society.

Linguistic Notes

The glossary provides the Modern Scots form of each place-name element, and then traces the word back through the Older Scots form to its etymological root. Illustration of the development of each element is found in the historical forms, and modern usage is illustrated by the current place-name examples provided. The glossary also provides references to the two major Scots dictionaries, the Scottish National Dictionary (SND) and the Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (DOST) together with any relevant supplementary material (the first SND supplement is marked S1, and the second S2, and the additions to DOST are marked ADDS). These dictionaries can be accessed online at www.dsl.ac.uk. Further supplementary material has been added from two 1940s Ph. D. theses, The Non-Celtic Place-Names of the Scottish Border Counties by May Williamson and The Place Name of Midlothian by Norman Dixon, both of which are available for consultation in the ‘resources’ section of the Scottish Place-Name Society website. The glossary contains Scots words derived from Old English, Old Norse, Middle Dutch, Anglo-Norman French and Latin, together with more recent loan-words from Gaelic and Insular Norn. For example, the whilst ‘glen’ is primarily a Gaelic place-name element, occurring in names such as Glen Affric and Glenmore, the word was also borrowed into Scots, where it was used to form names such as Glenhead and Glens of Foudland. Similarly, although names in ‘geo’ are often from Old Norse gjá, including Ramnageo and Papilgeo, the word was also borrowed into Scots from Norn, and used to coin names such as Millburn Geo and Geo of Dykesend.Counties (where given) are pre-1975 local government reorganisation.

PoS = Part of Speech (noun, adjective, etc.)